References Return to the Homepage of the Biodiversity Database of Washington, D.C.


There are thousands of popular and scientific publications that regard organisms of the Washington, D.C., Area. We list selected references below as well as publications of general interest at the bottom of the page.



Barrows, Edward M. 2001. Animal Behavior Desk Reference, Second Edition: A Dictionary of Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 922 pages.

Behler, J. L., and F. Wayne King. 1996. National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, NY. 743 pp.

Borror, D. J., C. A. Triplehorn, and N. F. Johnson. 1989. An Introduction to the Study of Insects. Sixth Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia, PA. 875 pp.

Borror, D. J., and R. E. White. 1970. A Field Guide to the Insects of America North of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA. 404 pp.

Brown, R. G. and M. L. Brown. 1972. Woody Plants of Maryland. Port City Press, MD. 347 pp. 1992 reprint.

Brown, M. L. and R. G. Brown. 1984. Herbaceous Plants of Maryland. Port City Press, MD. 1127 pp.

Bull, J. and J. Farrand, Jr. 1998 (1984). National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Birds. Eastern Region. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, NY. 797 pp.

Buchmann, S. L. and G. P. Nabhan. 1996. The Forgotten Pollinators. Island Press, Washington, D. C. 292 pp.


Cobb, B. 1963 (1956). A Field Guide to the Ferns. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA. 281 pp.

Covell, C. V., Jr. 1984. A Field Guide to the Moths of Eastern North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA. 496 pp.


Downie, N. M., and R. H. Arnett, Jr. 1996. The Beetles of Northeastern North America. The Sandhill Crane Press, Gainesville, FL. Vol. 1. i-xiv + 880 pp.

Vol. 2. i-x + 891-1721.

Dunkle, S. W. 1989. Dragonflies of the Florida Peninsula, Bermuda, and the Bahamas. Scientific Publishers, Gainesville, FL. 154 pp.

Dunkle, S. W. 1990. Damselflies of Florida, Bermuda and the Bahamas. Scientific Publishers, Gainesville, FL. 148 pp.



Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany. Eight Edition. American Book Company, New York, NY. 1632 pp.






Krombein, K. V., P. D. Hurd, Jr., D. R. Smith, and B. D. Burks. 1979. Catalog of the Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico. 3 Volumes. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 2735 pp.


Lincoff, Gary H. 1981. National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Mushrooms. 926 pp.

Little, Elbert L. 1980. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Trees. Eastern Region. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, NY. 714 pp.


McKnight, K. H. and V. B. McKnight. 1987. A Field Guide to Mushrooms. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA. 429 pp.

Michener, C. D. 20000. The Bees of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD. 913 pp.

Michener, C. D., R. J. McGinley, and B. N. Danforth. 1994. The Bee Genera of North and Central America. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 209 pp.

Milne, L. and M. Milne. 1997 (1980). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders. 989 pp.

Mitchell, T. B. 1960. Bees of Eastern United States. North Carolina Agriculture Experiment Station Technical Bulletin 141. Volume 1. 538 pp. Volume 2. 557 pp.


National Geographic Society. 1994. Field Guide to the Birds of North America. National Geographic Society, Washington, DC. 464 pp.

Niering, W. A., and N. C. Olmstead. 1979. The Audubon Society Field Guide to Wildflowers. Eastern Region. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, NY. 887 pp.


Opler, P. A. and V. Malikul. 1992. A Field Guide to the Eastern Butterflies. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA. 396 pp.

O'Toole, C. and A. Raw. 1991. Bees of the World. Facts On File, New York, NY. 102 pp.

Otte, D. 1981. The North American Grasshoppers. Volume 1. Acrididae: Gomphocerinae and Acridinae. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. 304 pp.

Otte, D. 1981. The North American Grasshoppers. Volume 2. Acrididae: Gomphocerinae and Acridinae. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. 352 pp.


Peterson, R. T. 1980. A Field Guide to the Birds. A Completely New Guide to All the Birds of Eastern and Central North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA. 384 pp.




Slater, James A. and Richard M. Baranowski. 1978. How to Know the True Bugs (Hemiptera B Heteroptera). Wm. C. Brown, Dubuque, IA. 256 pp.

Strausbaugh, P.D. and E. L. Core. 1978. Flora of West Virginia. Second Edition. Seneca Books, Inc., Grantsville, WV. 1079 pp.





Wauer, R. H. 1992. The Visitor=s Guide to the Birds of the Eastern National Parks. United States and Canada. John Muir Publications, Santa Fe, NM. 388 pp.

White, R. E. 1983. A Field Guide to the Beetles of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA. 368 pp.




Articles of General Interest:

Abu-Asab, M. S., P. M. peterson, S. G. Shetler and S. S. Orli. 2001. Earlier plant flowering in spring as a response to global warming in the Washington, DC, area. Biodiversity and Conservation  10 : 597-612.

Adrienne, B., B. Venables and E. M. Barrows. 1985. Skippers: Pollinators or nectar thieves? Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society  39(4): 299-312.

Agrawal, A. A. 1999. Induced responses to herbivory in wild radish:  Effects on several herbivores and plant fitness. Ecology  80(5): 1713-1723.

Andersen, D. C. 1987. Below-ground herbivory in natural communities: A review emphasizing fossorial animals. The Quarterly Review of Biology  62(3): 261-286.

Arnold, S. J. 1983. Morphology, performance and fitness. American Zoologist  23: 347-361.

Ayala, F. 2000. Neutralism and selectionism: the molecular clock. Gene  291(1): 27-33.

Ayres, M. P. 1997. Diversity of structure and antiherbivore activity in condensed tannins. Ecology  78(6): 1696--1712.

Barrows, E. M., W. J. Bell and C. D. Michener. 1975. Individual odor differences and their social functions in insects. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America  72(7): 2824-2828.

Barrows, E. M. 1978. Male behavior in Andrena erigeniae  (Hymenopotera: Andrenidae) with comparative notes. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society  51(4): 1978.

Barrows, E. M. and M. E. Hooker. 1981. Parasitization of the Mexican Bean Beetle by Pediobius foveolatus  in urban vegetable gardens. Environmental Entomology  10: 782-786.

Barrows, E. M., J. S. Defilippo and M. Tavallali. 1983. Urban community gardener knowledge of Arthropods in vegetable gardens in Washington, D.C. Urban Entomology:  Interdisciplinary Perspectives. : 107-126.

Barrows, E. M. 1984. Perch sites and food of adult chinese mantids (Dictyoptera: Mantidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington  86(4): 898-901.

Barrows, E. M., S. S. Wolf and D. M. Lynch. 1994. Diflubenzuron effect on yellowjacket (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) worker numbers in a central Appalachian broadleaf forest. Journal of Economic Entomology  87(6): 1488-1493.

Baskin, Y. 2002. The Greening of horticulture: New codes of conduct aim to curb plant invasions. Bioscience  52(6): 464-473.

Bater, J. E. 1991. A trap design for combined insect emergence and soil arthropod extraction from soil. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment  34: 231-234.

Beckerman, A. P., M. Uriarte and O. J. Schmitz. 1997. Experimental evidence for a behavior-mediated trophic cascade in a terrestrial food chain. 94 : 10735-10738.

Benrey, B. and R. F. Denno. 1997. The slow-growth–high-mortality hypothesis: A test using the cabbage butterfly. Ecology  78(4): 987-999.

Berdegue, M., J. Trumble, J. Hare and R. Redak. 1996. Is it enemy-free space? The evidence for terrestrial insects and freshwater arthropods. ECOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY  21(3): 203-217.

Berlow, E. L. 1999. Strong effects of weak interactions in ecological communities. Nature  398: 330-334.

Bernard, E. C. 2002. COMPREHENSIVE SURVEY OF SOIL INVERTEBRATES: SUMMARY REPORT. Cherokee Central School District : 1-34.

Bertness, M. D. 1984. Habitat and Community Modification by An Introduced Herbivorous Snail. Ecology  65: 370-381.

Boomsma, J. J. and F. L. W. Ratnieks. 1996. Paternity in eusocial Hymenoptera. Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences  351(1342): 947-975.

Borges, P. A. V. and V. K. Brown. 1998. Effect of island geological age on the arthropod species richness of Azorean pastures. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society  66(3): 373-410.

Borges, P. A. V. 1999. Plant and arthropod species composition of sown and

semi-natural pasture communities of three Azorean islands. Arquipélago  17: 1-21.

Borges, P. A. V. 1999. A list of arthropod species of sown and semi-natural pastures of three Azorean islands (S. Maria, Terceira and Pico) with some

conservation remarks. Açoreana  9(1): 13-34.

Borges, P. A. V., A. R. M. Serrano and J. A. Quartau. 2000. Ranking the Azorean natural forest reserves for conservation using their endemic arthropods. Journal of Insect Conservation  4: 126-147.

Borges, P. A. V. and V. K. Brown. 2001. Phytophagous insects and web-building spiders in relation to pasture vegetation complexity. Ecography  24(1): 68-82.

Borges, P. A. V. and V. K. Brown. Submitted. Studying arthropods in pastures: the need for complementary use of suction sampling and pitfall trapping methods. Bulletin of Entomological Research .

Bossart, J. L. and C. E. Carlton. 2002. Insect Conservation in America: status and perspectives. American Entomologist  48: 82-92.

Boulinier, T., J. D. Nichols, J. E. Hines, J. R. Sauer, C. H. Flather and K. H. Pollock. 2001. Forest fragmentation and bird community dynamics: Inference at regional scales. Ecology  82(6): 1159-1169.

Brockmann, H. J., A. Grafen and R. Dawkins. 1979. Evolutionarily stable nesting strategy in a digger wasp. Journal of Theoretical Biology  77(4): 473-496.

Brown, L., J. MacDonnell and V. J. Fitzgerald. 1985. Courtship and female choice in the Horned Beetle, Bolitotherus cornutus  (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America  78: 423-427.

Brown, J. W. 2001. Species turnover in the leafrollers (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) of Plummers Island, Maryland: Assessing a century of inventory data. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington  103(3): 673-685.

Bruckner, A., G. Barth and M. Scheibengraf. 2000. Composite sampling enhances the confidence of soil microarthropod abundance and species richness estimates. Pedobiologia  44(1): 63-74.

Burger, J. C., M. A. Patten, T. R. Prentice and R. A. Redak. 2001. Evidence for spider community resilience to invasion by non-native spiders. Biological Conservation  98(2): 241-249.

Cabin, R. J., S. G. Weller, D. H. Lorence, S. Cordell and L. J. Hadway. 2002. Effects of microsite, water, weeding, and direct seeding on the regeneration of native and alien species within a Hawaiian dry forest preserve. Biological Conservation  104(2): 181-190.

Callaway, R. M. and E. T. Aschehoug. 2000. Invasive plants versus their new and old Neighbors: A mechanism for exotic invasion. Science  290: 521-523.

Cam, E., J. D. Nichols, J. E. Hines, J. R. Sauer, R. Alpizar-Jara and C. H. Flather. 2002. Disentangling sampling and ecological explanations underlying species-area relationships. Ecology  83(4): 1118-1130.

Cavill, G. W. K. and P. L. Robertson. 1965. Ant venoms, attractants, and repellents. Science  149(3690): 1337-1345.

Chapin III F. Stuart , O. E. S., Ingrid C. Burke, J. Phillip Grime, David U. Hooper, William K. Lauenroth, Amanda Lombard, Harold A. Mooney, Arvin R. Mosier, Shahid Naeem, Stephen W. Pacala, Jacques Roy, William L. Steffen, and David Tilman. 1998. Ecosystem Consequences of Changing Biodiversity

Experimental evidence and a research agenda for the future. Bioscience  48(1): 45-52.

Chavarria, G. 2000. Pollinator Conservation. Renewable Resources Journal  17(4): 18-22.

Chen, B. and D. Wise. 1999. Bottom-up limitation of predaceous arthropods in a detritus-based terrestrial food web. Ecology  80(3): 761-772.

Cicero, M. and E. M. Barrows. 2000. Milesiine flower flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) in a central appalachian broadleaf forest: Abundances, flight periods and diflubenzuron. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington  102(1): 50-57.

Clinton, W. J. 1999. Invasive Species, Executive Order 13112. Federal Register  64(25): Presidential Documents 64FR6183.

Cole, F. R., A. C. Medeiros, L. L. Loope and W. W. Zuehlke. 1992. Effects of the Argentine Ant on Arthropod fauna of Hawaiian high-elevation shrubland. Ecology  73(4): 1313-1322.

Cole(Jr.), A. C. 1940. A Guide to the Ants of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee. American Midland Naturalist  24(1): 1-88.

Coley, P. D., J. P. Bryant and F. S. Chapin. 1985. Resource availability and plant antiherbivore defense. Science  230(4728): 895-899.

Colwell, R. K. and J. A. Coddington. 1994. Estimating terrestrial biodiversity through extrapolation. Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences  345(1311): 101-118.

Conery, M. L. a. J. S. 2000. The evolutionary fate and consequences of duplicate genes. Science  290: 1151-1155.

Connell, J. H. 1978. Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs. Science  1999(4335): 1302-1310.

Connor, R. C. 1986. Pseudo-reciprocity: Investing in mutualism. Animal Behavior  34: 1562-1584.

Costanza, R., R. d’Arge, R. d. Groot, S. Farber, M. Grasso†, B. Hannon, K. Limburg, S. Naeem, R. V. O’Neill††, J. Paruelo‡‡, R. G. Raskin, P. Sutton and M. v. d. Belt. 1997. The value of the world’s ecosystem

services and natural capital. Nature  387: 252-260.

Coyne, J. A. 1992. Genetics and speciation. Nature  355: 511-515.

Crabill, R. E. 1980? The Genus Strigamia. unpublished .

Crisp, P. N., K. J. M. Dickinson and G. W. Gibbs. 1998. Does native invertebrate diversity reflect Native plant diversity? A case study from New Zealand and implications for conservation. Biological Conservation  83(2): 209-220.

Daily, G. C., T. Söderqvist, S. Aniyar, K. Arrow, P. Dasgupta, P. R. Ehrlich, C. Folke, A. Jansson, B.-O. Jansson, N. Kautsky, S. Levin, J. Lubchenco, K.-G. Mäler, D. Simpson, D. Starrett, D. Tilman and B. Walker. 2000. Ecology. The value of nature and the nature of value. Science  289: 395-396.

Damman, H. 1987. Leaf quality and enemy avoidance by the larvae of a pyralid moth. Ecology  68(1): 88-97.

Dean, J., D. J. Aneshansley, H. E. Edgerton and T. Eisner. 1990. Defensive spray of the Bombardier Beetle: A biological pulse jet. Science  248(4960): 1219-1221.

Dussourd, D. E. and T. Eisner. 1987. Vein-cutting behavior: Insect counterploy to the latex defense of plants. Science  237(4817): 898-901.

Dyer, L. A. 1995. Tasty generalists and nasty specialists? Antipredator mechanisms in tropical lepidopteran larvae. Ecology  76(5): 1483-1496.

Ehrlich, P. R. and E. O. Wilson. 1991. Biodiversity Studies: Science and Policy. Science  253(5021): 758-762.

Enserink, M. 1999. Predicting invasions: biological invaders sweep in. Science  285: 1834-1836.

Farrell, B. D. 1998. "Inordinate Fondness" explained: Why are there so many beetles? Science  281: 555-559.

Fensham, R. J. and I. D. Cowie. 1998. Alien plant invasions on the tiwi islands. Extent, implications and priorities for control. Biological Conservation  83(1): 55-68.

Fichter, E. 1941. Apparatus for the comparison of soil surface Arthropod populations. Ecology  22(3): 338-339.

Fisher, R. A. 1958. Genetical theory of natural selection: A complete variorum edition.  318p.

Gehlhausen, S. M., M. W. Schwartz and C. K. Augspurger. 2000. Vegetation and microclimatic edge effects in two mixed-mesophytic

forest fragments. Plant Ecology  147: 21-35.

Ghersa, C. M., E. d. l. Fuente, S. Suarez and R. J. C. Leon. 2002. Woody species invasion in the Rolling Pampa Grasslands, Argentina. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment  88(3): 271-278.

Ginsberg, H. S. 1994. Conservation of invertebrates in U.S. National Parks. American Entomologist  40: 76-78.

Gottfried, D. 1970. The River and the Rocks: The geologic story of Great Falls and the Potomac River Gorge. : 46.

Gould, S. J. and R. C. Lewontin. 1979. The Spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: A critique of the sdaptationist programme. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences  205(1161): 581-598.

Greenslade, P. J. M. 1964. Pitfall trapping as a method for studying populations of Carabidae (Coleoptera). Journal of Animal Ecology  33(2): 301-310.

Greenslade, P. J. M. 1972. Distribution Patterns of Priochirus Species (Coleoptera:Staphylinidae) in the Solomon Islands. Evolution  26(1): 130-142.

Gremmen, N. J. M., S. L. Chown and D. J. Marshall. 1998. Impact of the introduced grass Agrostis stolonifera  on vegetation and soil fauna communities at Marion Island, sub-Antarctic. Biological Conservation  85(3): 223-231.

Griffith, M. B., E. M. Barrows and S. A. Perry. 1996. Effects of aerial application of diflubenzuron on emergence and flight of adult aquatic insects. JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY  89(2): 442-446.

Griffith, M. B., E. M. Barrows and S. A. Perry. 1998. Lateral dispersal of adult aquatic insects (Plecoptera, Trichoptera) following emergence from headwater streams in forested Appalachian catchments. ANNALS OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA  91(2): 195-201.

Groffman, P. M. and P. J. Bohlen. 1999. Soil and Sediment Biodiversity: Cross-system comparisons and large scale effects. Bioscience  49(2): 139-153.

Gwynne, D. T. 1993. Food quality controls sexual selection in Mormon Crickets by altering male mating investment. Ecology  74(5): 1406-1413.

Haddad, N., D. Tilman, J. Haarstad, M. Ritchie and J. Knops. 2001. Contrasting effects of plant richness and composition on insect communities: A field experiment. AMERICAN NATURALIST  158(1): 17-35.

Hairston, N. G., F. E. Smith and L. B. Slobodkin. 1960. Community structure, population control, and competition. American Naturalist  94: 421-425.

Hamilton, W. D. 1967. Extraordinary sex ratios. Science  156: 477-488.

Hanski, I., M. Kuussaari and M. Nieminen. 1994. Metapopulation structure and migration in the butterfly Melitaea Cinxia . Ecology  75(3): 747-762.

Harte, J. and R. Shaw. 1995. Shifting dominance within a montane vegetation community: Results of a climate-warming experiment. Science  267: 876-880.

Hoekstra, J., R. BELL, A. LAUNER and D. MURPHY. 1995. Soil arthropod abundance in coast redwood forest-effect of selective timber harvest. ENVIRONMENTAL ENTOMOLOGY  24(2): 246-252.

Hoffman, R. L. 1995. The Centipeds (Chilopoda) of Virginia: a first list. Banisteria  5: 20-31.

Holway, D. A. 1998. Effect of Argentina ant invasions on ground-dwelling arthropods in northern California riparian woodlands. OECOLOGIA  116(1-2): 252-258.

Hooper, D. U. and P. M. Vitousek. 1997. The effects of plant composition and diversity on ecosystem processes. Science  277: 1302-1305.

Huffaker, C. and C. Kennett. 1959. A ten-year study of vegetational changes associated with biological control of Klamath weed. Journal of Range Management  12(2): 69-82.

Hughes, L. 2000. Biological consequences of global warming: is the signal already apparent? Trends in Ecology & Evolution  15(2): 56-61.

Hunter, M. D. and P. W. Price. 1992. Top-Down and Bottom-Up Forces

Playing chutes and ladders: Heterogeneity and the relative roles of bottom-up and top-down forces in natural communities. Ecology  73(3): 724-732.

Hurlbert, S. H. 1971. The nonconcept of species diversity: a critque and alternative parameters. Ecology  52(4): 577-586.

Hurlbert, S. 1978. The measurement of niche overlap and some relatives. Ecology  59(1): 67-77.

Hurlbert, S. H. 1984. Pseudoreplication and the design of ecological field experiments. Ecological Monographs  54(2): 187-211.

Janzen, D. H. and P. S. Martin. 1982. Neotropical anachronisms: The fruits the Gomphotheres ate. Science  215(4528): 19-27.

Janzen, D. H., P. J. DeVries, M. L. Higgins and L. S. Kimsey. 1982. Seasonal and site variation in Costa Rican Euglossine bees at chemical baits in lowland deciduous and evergreen forests. Ecology  63(1): 66-74.

Johnston, D. W. 2000. The Dyke Marsh Preserve ecosystem. Virginia Journal of Science  51: 223-272.

Jones, C. G., R. S. Ostfeld, M. P. Richard, E. M. Schauber and J. O. Wolff. 1998. Chain reactions linking acorns to Gypsy Moth outbreaks and lyme disease risk. Science  279(1023-1026).

Karban, R. 1986. Interspecific competition between folivorous insects on Erigeron Glaucus . Ecology  67(4): 1063-1072.

Karban, R. 1989. Community organization of Erigeron Glaucus  folivores: Effects of competition, predation, and host plant. Ecology  70(4): 1028-1039.

Kareiva, P. 1987. Habitat fragmentation and the stability of predator-prey interactions. Nature  326: 388-390.

Kareiva, P. 1993. Influence of vegetation texture on herbivore populations: Resource concentration and herbivore movement. Variable Plants and Herbivores in Natural and Managed Systems .

Keane, R. M. and M. J. Crawley. 2002. Exotic plant invasions and the enemy release hypothesis. Trends in Ecology & Evolution  17(4): 164-170.

Kimura, M. 1983. The neutral theory of molecular evolution. : 1-33.

Klein, B. C. 1989. Effects of forest fragmentation on dung and carrion beetle communities in Central Amazonia. Ecology  70(6): 1715-1725.

Krombein, K. V. 1979. Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico. .

Labandeira, C. C. and J. J. John Sepkoski. 1993. Insect diversity in the fossil record. Science  261: 310-315.

Labandeira, C. C., D. L. Dilcher, D. R. Davis and D. L. Wagner. 1994. Ninety-seven million years of angiosperm-insect association: Paleobiological insights into the meaning of coevolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America  91(25): 12278-12282.

Labandeira, C. C. 1998. Enhanced: How old Is the flower and the fly? Science  280: 57-59.

Labandeira, C. C. 1998. Early history of arthropod and vascular plant associations. ANNUAL REVIEW OF EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCES  26: 329-377.

Lamont, B. B., P. G. L. Klinkhamer and E. T. F. Witkowski. 1993. Population fragmentation may reduce fertility to zero in Banksia boodii  - A demonstration of the Allee effect. Oecologia  94(3): 446-450.

Lazri, B. and E. Barrows. 1984. Flower visiting and pollen transport by the Imported Cabbage Butterfly  (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) in a highly disturbed urban habitat. Environmental Entomology  13: 574-578.

Leibold, M. A. 1995. The niche concept revisited: Mechanistic models and community context. Ecology  76(5): 1371-1382.

Levin, D. A. 1979. The nature of plant species. Science  204(4391): 381-384.

Levings, S. C. 1983. Seasonal, Annual, and Among-site Variation in the Ground Ant Community of a Deciduous Tropical Forest: Some Causes of Patchy Species Distributions. Ecological Monographs  53(4): 435-455.

Lubchenco, J. 1978. Plant species diversity in a marine intertidal community: Importance of herbivore food preference and algal competitive abilities. American Naturalist  112(983): 23-39.

Lubow, B. C. 1996. Optimal Translocation Strategies for Enhancing Stochastic Metapopulation Viability. Ecological Applications  6(4): 1268-1280.

Lynch, J. F., E. C. Balinsky and S. G. Vail. 1980. Foraging patterns in three sympatric species, Prenolepis imparis , Paratrechina melanderi  and Aphaenogaster rudis . Ecological Entomology  5: 353-371.

Magnusson, W. 2000. Error bars: are they the king's clothes? ESA Bulletin  81(2): 147-150.

McClure, M. S. 1980. Competition Between Exotic Species: Scale Insects on Hemlock. Ecology  61(6): 1391-1401.

McComb, K., C. Moss, S. M. Durant, L. Baker and S. Syailel. 2001. Matriarchs as repositories of social knowledge in African elephants. Science  292: 491-494.

McGrady-Steed, J., P. M. Harris and P. J. Morin. 1997. Biodiversity regulates ecosystem predictability. Nature  390: 162-165.

Medal, J. C., R. Charudattan, J. J. Mullahey and R. A. Pitelli. 1996. An Exploratory Insect Survey of Tropical Soda Apple in Brazil and Paraguay. Florida Entomologist  79(1): 70-73.

Memmott, J., S. Fowler, Q. Paynter, A. Sheppard and P. Syrett. 2000. The invertebrate fauna on broom, Cytisus scoparius , in two native and two exotic habitats. ACTA OECOLOGICA-INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY  21(3): 213-222.

Morrison, D. 1988. Comparing Fish and Urchin Grazing in Shallow and Deeper Coral Reef Algal Communities. Ecology  69(5): 1367-1382.

Murdoch, W. W., R. F. Luck, S. J. Walde, J. D. Reeve and D. S. Yu. 1989. A Refuge for Red Scale Under Control by Aphytis: Structural Aspects. Ecology  70(6): 1707-1714.

Naeem, S. and S. Li. 1997. Biodiversity enhances ecosystem reliability. Nature  390: 507-509.

Niesenbaum, R. 1999. The effects of pollen load size and donor diversity on pollen performance, selective abortion, and progeny vigor in Mirabilis jalapa (Nyctaginaceae). AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY  96(2): 261-268.

NOAA. 2002. DCA temperature and precipitation.  2002(06/06/2002).

NOVOTNY, V., Y. BASSET, S. E. MILLER, G. D. WEIBLEN, B. BREMER, L. CIZEK and P. DROZD. 2002. Low host specificity of herbivorous insects in a tropical forest. Nature  416: 841 - 844.

Oliver, I. and A. J. Beattie. 1996. Designing a Cost-Effective Invertebrate Survey: A Test of Methods for Rapid Assessment of Biodiversity. Ecological Applications  6(2): 594-607.

Omacini, M., E. Chaneton, C. Ghersa and C. Muller. 2001. Symbiotic fungal endophytes control insect host-parasite interaction webs. Nature  409(6816): 78-81.

Orr, H. 1996. Dobzhansky, Bateson, and the genetics of speciation. Genetics  144: 1331-1335.


Pace, M. L., J. J. Cole, S. R. Carpenter and J. F. Kitchell. 1999. Trophic cascades revealed in diverse ecosystems. TRENDS IN ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION  14(12): 483-488.

Paine, R. T. 1966. Food Web Complexity and Species Diversity. American Naturalist  100: 65-75.

Panhuis, T. M. and G. S. Wilkinson. 1998. Exaggerated male eye span influences contest outcome in stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology  46(4): 221-227.

Panzer, R. and M. W. Schwartz. 1998. Effectiveness of a vegetation-based approach to insect conservation. Conservation Biology  12(3): 693-702.

Parmenter, R. R. and J. A. MacMahon. 1989. Animal Density Estiamtion Using a Trapping Web Design: Field Validation Experiments. Ecology  70(1): 169-179.

Pereira, L. A. and R. L. Hoffman. 1993. The American species of Escaryus, a genus of holarctic centipeds (Geophilomorpha: Schendylidae). Jeffersoniana  3: 1-72.

Perfecto, I. 1990. Indirect and Direct Effects in a Tropical Agroecosystem: The Maize-Pest-Ant System in Nicaragua. Ecology  71(6): 2125-2134.

Perfecto, I. and R. Snelling. 1995. Biodiversity and the Transformation of a Tropical Agroecosystem: Ants in Coffee Plantations. Ecological Applications  5(4): 1084-1097.

Pimentel, D., L. Lach, R. Zuniga and D. Morrison. 2000. Environmental and economic costs of nonindigenous species in the United States. Bioscience  50(1): 53-65.

Pimentel, D., S. McNair, J. Janecka, J. Wightman, C. Simmonds, C. O'Connell, E. Wong, L. Russel, J. Zern, T. Aquino and T. Tsomondo. 2001. Economic and environmental threats of alien plant, animal, and microbe invasions. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment  84(1): 1-20.

Pinto, C., J. P. Sousa, M. A. S. Graca and M. M. d. Gama. 1997. Forest Soil Collembola.  Do tree introductions make a difference? Pediobiologia  41: 131-138.

Porter, S. D. and D. A. Savignano. 1990. Invasion of Polygyne Fire Ants Decimates Native Ants and Disrupts Arthropod Community. Ecology  71(6): 2095-2106.

Power, M., D. Tilman, J. Estes, B. Menge, W. Bond, L. Mills, G. Daily, J. Castilla, J. Lubchenco and R. Paine. 1996. Challenges in the quest for keystones. Bioscience  46(8): 609-620.

Presgraves, D., E. Severance and G. Wilkinson. 1997. Sex chromosome meiotic drive in stalk-eyed flies. Genetics  147: 1169-1180.

Price, P. W., C. E. Bouton, P. Gross, B. A. McPheron, J. N. Thomspson and A. E. Weis. 1980. Interactions among three trophic levels: Influence of plants on interactions between insect herbivores and natural enemies. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics  11: 41-65.

Purvis, A. and A. Hector. 2000. Getting the measure of biodiversity. Nature  405: 212-219.

Pyek, P., V. Jaroík and T. Kuera. 2002. Patterns of invasion in temperate nature reserves. Biological Conservation  104(1): 13-24.

Pyke, G. H. 1982. Local Geographic Distributions of Bumblebees Near Crested Butte, Colorado: Competition and Community Structure. Ecology  63(2): 555-573.

Queiroz, K. d. 1998. The general lineage concept of species, species criteria, and the process of speciation. Endless Forms: Species and speciation : 57-75.

Raup, D. M. 1966. Geometric Analysis of Shell Coiling: General Problems. Journal of Paleontology  40(5): 1178-1190.

Ray, C. and A. Hastings. 1996. Density Dependence: Are We Searching at the Wrong Spatial Scale? Journal of Animal Ecology  65(5): 556-566.

Reese, C. S. L. and E. M. Barrows. 1980. Co-Evolution of Claytonia Virginica (Portulacaceae) and its Main native Pollinator, Andrena erigeniae  (Andrenidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, D.C.  82(4): 685-694.

Reeve, J. D. 1997. Predation and bark beetle dynamics. Oecologia  112(1): 48-54.

Richard, W. and J. Dean. 1998. Space invaders: modelling the distribution, impacts and control of alien organisms. Trends in Ecology & Evolution  13(7): 256-258.


Roy, B. A. and R. A. Raguso. 1997. Olfactory versus visual cues in a floral mimicry system. Oecologia  109(3): 414-426.

Salmons, S. 2000. Rock Creek Park Invasive Non-Native Plant Mitigation Program. Final Report. National Park Service, Washington, D.C.  2002(06/06/2002).

Sauer, J. R. and W. A. Link. 2002. Hierarchical modeling of population stability and species group attributes from survey data. Ecology  86: 1743-1751.

Scheffer, S. and B. Wiegmann. 2000. Molecular Phylogenetics of the Holly Leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae: Phytomyza ): Species Limits, Speciation, and Dietary Specialization. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution  17(2): 244-255.

Schemske, D. and P. Bierzychudek. 2001. Perspective: Evolution of Flower Color in the Desert Annual Linanthus par ryae: Wright Revisited. Evolution  55(7): 1269-1281.

Schmidt, J. O. and M. S. Blum. 1978. A Harvester Ant Venom: Chemistry and Pharmacology. Science  200(4345).

Schoener, T. W., D. A. Spiller and J. B. Losos. 2001. Natural Restoration of the Species-Area Relation for a Lizard After a Hurricane. Science  294: 1525-1528.

Shea, K. and P. Chesson. 2002. Community ecology theory as a framework for biological invasions. Trends in Ecology & Evolution  17(4): 170-176.

Sieg, C. H., D. W. Uresk and R. M. Hansen. 1987. Impact of bentonite mining on selecting arthropods. Journal of Range Management  40(2): 128-131.

Singer, R. 1999. Insects and other hexapods. Encyclopedia of Paleontology  1(a-l): 603-624.

Smith, J. M. 1978. Optimization theory in evolution. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics  9: 31-56.

Smith, S. D., T. E. Huxman, S. F. Zitzer, T. N. Charlet, D. C. Housman, J. S. Coleman, L. K. Fenstermaker, J. R. Seemann and R. S. Nowak. 2000. Elevated CO2 increases productivity and invasive species success in an arid ecosystem. Nature  408: 79-82.

Snow, A. A. and T. P. Spira. 1991. POLLEN VIGOR AND THE POTENTIAL FOR SEXUAL SELECTION IN PLANTS. Nature  352: 796-797.

Soluk, D. A. 1993. Multiple Predator Effects: Predicting Combined Functional Response of Stream Fish and Invertebrate Predators. Ecology  74(1): 219-225.

Sousa, W. P. 1979. Experimental Investigations of Disturbance and Ecological Succession in a Rocky Intertidal Algal Community. Ecological Monographs  49(3): 227-254.

Sousa, J., J. Vingada, H. Barrocas and M. daGama. 1997. Effects of introduced exotic tree species on Collembola communities: The importance of management techniques. PEDOBIOLOGIA  41(1-3): 145-153.

Stiling, P. D. 1987. The Frequency of Density Dependence in Insect Host-Parasitoid Systems. Ecology  68(4): 844-856.


Sweetman, H. L. 1938. Physical Ecology of the Firebrat, Thermobia domestica  (Packard). Ecological Monographs  8(2): 285-311.

Takabayashi, J., Y. Sato, M. Horikoshi, R. Yamaoka, S. Yano, N. Ohsaki and M. Dicke. 1998. Plant Effects on Parasitoid Foraging: Differences between Two Tritrophic Systems. Biological Control  11(2): 97-103.

Tallamy, D. W. and R. F. Denno. ???? Alternative Life History Patterns in Risky Environments: An Example from Lacebugs. ???? 

Tanksley, S. D. and S. R. McCouch. 1997. Seed banks and molecular maps: unlocking genetic potential from the wild. Science  277: 1063-1066.

Templeton, A. R., R. J. Robertson, J. Brisson and J. Strasburg. 1997. Disrupting evolutionary processes: The effect of habitat fragmentation on collared lizards in the Missouri Ozarks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences  98(10): 5426-5432.

Thorne, B. L. 1997. Evolution of eusociality in termites. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics  28: 27-54.

Thornhill, R. 1976. Sexual Selection and Nuptial Feeding Behavior in Bittacus apicalis (Insecta: Mecoptera). American Naturalist  110(974): 529-548.

Tilman, D., J. Knops, D. Wedin, P. Reich, M. Ritchie and E. Siemann. 1997. The Influence of Functional Diversity and Composition on Ecosystem Processes. Science  277: 1300-1302.

Tinbergen, N. 1963. On aims and methods of ethology. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie  20: 410-433.

Townsend, C. R., M. R. Scarsbrook and S. Dolédec. 1997. The intermediate disturbance hypothesis, refugia, and biodiversity in streams. Limnology and Oceanography  42(5): 938-949.

Turchin, P., A. D. Taylor and J. D. Reeve. 1999. Dynamical Role of Predators in Population Cycles of a Forest Insect: An Experimental Test. Science  285: 1068-1071.

Uetz, G. W., K. L. V. D. Laan, G. F. Summers, P. A. K. Gibson and L. L. Getz. 1979. The Effects of Flooding on Floodplain Arthropod Distribution, Abundance and Community Structure. American Midland Naturalist  101: 286-299.

unknown. ???? Appendix A: Classification of Bees of North and Central America. .

Vesely, D. L. 1981. Bee Venom Enhances Guanylate Cyclase Activity. Science  213(4505): 359-360.

Waddington, K. D. 1979. Quantification of the Movement Patterns of Bees: A Novel Method. American Midland Naturalist  101: 278-285.

Wang, C., J. Strazanac and L. Butler. 2000. Abundance, diversity, and activity of ants (Hymenoptera : Formicidae) in oak-dominated mixed Appalachian forests treated with microbial pesticides. ENVIRONMENTAL ENTOMOLOGY  29(3): 579-586.

Wang, C., J. Strazanac and L. Butler. 2001. Association between ants (Hymenoptera : Formicidae) and habitat characteristics in oak-dominated mixed forests. Environmental Entomology  30(5): 842-848.

Weaver, A. A. 1969. Keys to the families, genera, and species of Chilopoda of eastern North America. unpublished .

Wilkinson, G. S. and P. R. Reillo. 1994. Female Choice Response to Artificial Selection on an Exaggerated Male Trait in a Stalk-Eyed Fly. Proceedings: Biological Sciences  255(1342): 1-6.

Wilkinson, G. S., D. C. Presgraves and L. Crymes. 1998. Male eye span in stalk-eyed flies indicates genetic quality by meiotic drive suppression. Nature  391: 276-279.

Williams, M. M., R. L. Minckley and F. A. Silveira. 2001. Variation in native bee faunas and its implications for detecting community change. Conservation Ecology  5(1): 7 [online].

Wolda, H. 1980. Seasonality of Tropical Insects. Journal of Animal Ecology  49(1): 277-290.

Wolda, H. and E. Broadhead. 1985. Seasonality of Psocoptera in two tropical forests in Panama. Journal of Animal Ecology  54(2): 519-530.

Wolda, H. 1988. Insect Seasonality: Why? Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics  19: 1-18.

Wooliams, J. 2001. Rear top herds on diet of data. Roslin Institute .

Wright, S. 1932. The roles of mutation, inbreeding, crossbreeding and selection in evolution. Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress Genetics  1: 356-366.

Zar, J. H. 1984. Biostatistical analysis. : 718.

update template